Karl Marx’s Grundrisse
1. Production, Consumption, Distribution, Exchange (Circulation)
The more deeply we go back into history, the more does the individual, and hence also the producing individual, appear as dependent, as belonging to a greater whole: in a still quite natural way in the family and in the family expanded into the clan; then later in the various forms of communal society arising out of the antitheses and fusions of the clan. Only in the eighteenth century, in ‘civil society’, do the various forms of social connectedness confront the individual as a mere means towards his private purposes, as external necessity. But the epoch which produces this standpoint, that of the isolated individual, is also precisely that of the hitherto most developed social (from this standpoint, general) relations. The human being is in the most literal sense a Ξωον πολιτιξον  not merely a gregarious animal, but an animal which can individuate itself only in the midst of society. Production by an isolated individual outside society – a rare exception which may well occur when a civilized person in whom the social forces are already dynamically present is cast by accident into the wilderness – is as much of an absurdity as is the development of language without individuals living *together* and talking to each other. There is no point in dwelling on this any longer. The point could go entirely unmentioned if this twaddle, which had sense and reason for the eighteenth-century characters, had not been earnestly pulled back into the centre of the most modern economics by Bastiat,  Carey,  Proudhon etc. Of course it is a convenience for Proudhon et al. to be able to give a historico-philosophic account of the source of an economic relation, of whose historic origins he is ignorant, by inventing the myth that Adam or Prometheus stumbled on the idea ready-made, and then it was adopted, etc. Nothing is more dry and boring than the fantasies of a *locus communis*. 
1. zoon politikon—political animal.
2. Fredric Bastiat (1801-50), French economist, and ‘modern bagman of Free Trade’ (Marx). A believer in laissez-faire and the natural harmony of interests between labour and capital; a fierce opponent of socialism in theory and in practice (as deputy in the Constituent and Legislative Assemblies of 1848 to 1851).
3. Henry Charles Carey (1793-1879), American economist, opponent of Ricardian pessimism (‘Carey, who does not understand Ricardo’—Marx), believed in state intervention to establish harmony between the interests of labour and of capital, and in the tendency of real wages to rise.
4. Of a commonplace (mind). Marx refers here to Bastiat’s Harmonies Economiques, Paris, 1851, pp. 16-19, and Carey’s Principles of Political Economy, Pt I, Philadelphia, 1837, pp. 7-8.
Karl Marx’s Grundrisse